A Man-in-the-Middle (MiTM) attack is a type of cyberattack where an attacker secretly intercepts and possibly alters the communication between two parties who believe they are directly communicating with each other. This allows the attacker to eavesdrop, steal sensitive information, or inject malicious content without the knowledge of the victims. MiTM attacks can occur in various forms, such as through compromised Wi-Fi networks, phishing, or malicious software, and they pose significant risks to data privacy and security.

Here are a few examples of Man-in-the-Middle (MiTM) attacks:

Wi-Fi Eavesdropping: An attacker sets up a rogue Wi-Fi hotspot with a name similar to a legitimate one. Unsuspecting users connect to it, and the attacker intercepts their data traffic, capturing sensitive information like passwords and credit card numbers.

Session Hijacking: During a web session, an attacker intercepts session cookies from a user's browser, allowing them to take over the user's session and access their account on a website without needing to log in.

HTTPS Spoofing: An attacker uses a fake SSL certificate to make a malicious website appear secure. When users visit what they think is a legitimate site, the attacker can intercept and manipulate the data being exchanged.

Email Interception: An attacker gains access to a network and intercepts email communications. They can read, alter, or delete emails, or even send fraudulent messages on behalf of one of the parties.

DNS Spoofing: The attacker corrupts the DNS cache, redirecting users from a legitimate website to a fake one. For example, typing in a bank's URL might lead the user to a fraudulent site designed to steal login credentials.

SSL Stripping: During the initial connection, an attacker downgrades a secure HTTPS connection to an unencrypted HTTP connection. Users think they are communicating securely, but the attacker can see and manipulate all the traffic.

These examples illustrate the various methods attackers can use to perform MiTM attacks, highlighting the importance of strong encryption and vigilance (alertness) in maintaining network security.

Cybersecurity is not just about technology, it's about people, processes, and vigilance. - Homeland Security